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This document is a list of references for Alliance the fact sheet, "The Model of Health and Wellbeing Works! Here's how we know."  They are also listed below. Headings in the references document and on this page correspond to the headings in the handout.

#Our Benchmark: The Model of Health and Wellbeing

Alliance for Healthier Communities (n.d.). Model of Health and Wellbeing. Retrieved April 13, 2022 from

Rayner, J., Muldoon, L., Bayoumi, I., McMurchy, D., Mulligan, K., & Tharao, W. (2018). Delivering primary health care as envisioned: A model of health and well-being guiding community-governed primary care organizations. Journal of Integrated Care, 26(3).

#Measuring Our Impact

Rayner, J., Khan, T., Chan, C., & Wu, C. (2020). Illustrating the patient journey through the care continuum: Leveraging structured primary care electronic medical record (EMR) data in Ontario, Canada using chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a case study. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 140.

Canadian Institute for Health Information. (2020). Patterns of Community Care for Mental Health and Addictions: Insights from Community Health Centre EMR Data. CIHI. Retrieved April 13, 2022 from

#The evidence is in: better health outcomes, lower system costs, and positive experiences for clients and providers.

Our members make it easier to access preventive care.

Association of Ontario Health Centres. (2015). Cancer screening: How Ontario’s Community Health Centres achieve results. Alliance for Healthier Communities. Retrieved April 13, 2022 from

Sayani, A., Vahabi, M., O’Brien, M. A., Liu, G., Hwang, S., Selby, P., Nicholson, E., & Lofters, A. (January 7, 2021). Perspectives of family physicians towards access to lung cancer screening for individuals living with low income – a qualitative study. BMC Family Practice 22(10).

Alamgir, A., Usmani, S., Bhuiyan, S., & Janczur, A. (February 27, 2021). Structuring a Communication Framework to Address the Challenges of Vulnerable Communities for Building Trust and Ensuring Access to Emergency Health Messages for Compliance during COVID-19. EC Emergency Medicine and Critical Care 5(3), 07-16.

CHCs are experts at managing chronic conditions.

Costanian, C., Dahrouge, S., Howard, M., Johnston, S., Tranmer, J., Heale, R., Agarwal, G., Brown, J., Glazier, R., Green, M., Muldoon, L., Rayner, J., Mulder, C., & Belsito, L. (2019, June 5). The Relationship between Primary Care Practice Organizational Characteristics and Chronic Disease Prevention and Management [Poster Session]. Trillium Primary Care Research Day, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Retrieved April 13, 2022 from

CHCs are helping to keep the health system sustainable.

Glazier, R., Zagorski, B. M., & Rayner, J. (2012). Comparison of Primary Care Models in Ontario by Demographics, Case Mix, and Emergency Department Use, 2009/09 to 2009/10. Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences.

Bhuiya, A. R., Scallan, E., Alam, S., Sharma, K., & Wilson, M. G. (October 23, 2020). Rapid Synthesis: Identifying the Features and Impacts of Community Health Centres. McMaster Health Forum.

CHCs are building communities and fostering a sense of belonging.

Alliance for Healthier Communities. (n.d.) Social Prescribing. Retrieved April 13, 2022, from

Mulligan, K., Hsiung, S., Bhatti, S., Rehel, J., & Rayner, J. (March, 2020). Rx: Community – Social Prescribing in Ontario, Final Report. Alliance for Healthier Communities.

Muldoon, L., Dahroughe, S., Hogg, W., Geneau, R., Russell, G., & Shortt, M. (July 2010). Community orientation in primary care practices: Results from the Comparison of Models of Primary Health Care in Ontario Study. Canadian Family Physician 56(7), 676-683.

Trusted relationships and person-centred care lead to better experiences.

Linton, L., Swedak, J., Macdonald, C., & Gusovsky, D. (January 2020). A Regional System of High-Quality Care: Rural Hastings Health Link – A Collaborative Initiative. Healthcare Quarterly 22(4), 40-46.

Callaghan, J., Décarie, T., Filaber, K., Gans, M., Hassaan, F., & Ledwos, C. (October 2019). Case Study: West End Quality Improvement Collaboration. Healthcare Quarterly22(3), 65-67.